Bursera graveolens
Bursera graveolens.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Burseraceae
Genus: Bursera
B. graveolens
Binomial name
Bursera graveolens
  • Elaphrium graveolens Kunth 1824
  • Amyris caranifera Willd. ex Engl.
  • Amyris graveolens Spreng.
  • Bursera anderssonii B.L.Rob.
  • Bursera graveolens var. pilosa Engl.
  • Bursera graveolens var. pubescens Engl.
  • Bursera graveolens var. villosula Cuatrec.
  • Bursera pilosa (Engl.) L.Riley
  • Bursera tatamaco (Tul.) Triana & Planch.
  • Elaphrium pilosum (Engl.) Rose
  • Elaphrium tatamaco Tul.
  • Spondias edmonstonei Hook.f.
  • Terebinthus graveolens (Kunth) Rose
  • Terebinthus pilosa (Engl.) Rose
  • Bursera malacophylla B.L.Rob.

Bursera graveolens, known in Spanish as palo santo ("Holy Stick”), is a wild tree native from the Yucatán Peninsula to Peru and Venezuela.[2]

Bursera graveolens is found in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Peru, Venezuela, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Ecuador,[3] and on the Galápagos Islands.[4] The tree belongs to the same family (Burseraceae) as frankincense and myrrh. It is widely used in ritual purification and as folk medicine for stomach ache, as a sudorific, and as liniment for rheumatism.[2] Aged heartwood is rich in terpenes such as limonene and α-terpineol.


In 2006, the government of Peru listed Bursera graveolens as "In Critical Danger" (En Peligro Critico (CR)) under Decree 043-2006-AG, banning the cutting of live trees and allowing only for the collection of naturally fallen or dead trees.[5] However, in 2014, it was removed from the SERFOR (National Forest and Wildlife Service) list of protected species.[6]

Illegal logging is a regular occurrence in northwestern Peru due to high demand.[7][8] In 2010, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) stated Bursera graveolens conservation status as "stable".[9][10]

In Ecuador there are reforestation programs for the Palo Santo tree. To reforest, the transplant method is used, which consists of determining an area of the forest that has overpopulation of the same species to extract the trees that are very close to each other and transfer them to an area of the forest where there are no trees so that they can continue their natural development. In this way, the space that remains when the trees are extracted will be used by other native species of the dry forest.[11]


Ethnobotanical uses

The use of palo santo from B. graveolens is traditional in South America, especially in Peru and Ecuador. According to the local customs, it is used against "mala energía" (bad energy; "Palo santo para limpiar tu casa de la mala energia, palo santo para la buena suerte" or "Palo santo to cleanse your house of bad energy, palo santo for good luck"), which may sometimes refer to clinical disease. Its use reportedly dates back to the Inca era.[12] Palo santo is common today as a type of incense, which gives off an aroma reminiscent of baked apples or burnt sugar.

Palo santo oil was used during the time of the Incas for its reputed spiritual purifying properties. Today, palo santo oil may be applied to the body (such as at the base of the skull or on the spine) to increase relaxation,[12] similar to aromatherapy.

Palo santo may be burned, similar to incense, by lighting shavings of palo santo wood. In Peru, a shaman, or medicine man, reportedly lights palo santo sticks and the rising smoke will enter the "energy field" of ritual participants to "clear misfortune, negative thoughtprints, and 'evil spirits'".[13] Peruvians harvest fallen branches and twigs of the B. graveolens tree, a practice that is regulated by the government of Peru, so trees are not cut for wood harvesting.[14] The charcoal of palo santo sticks can also be used for ritual smudging. Yoga studios and witchcraft practitioners utilize the substance.[15]


  1. ^ Salas, Esteban Martínez; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie (March 2019). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bursera graveolens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  2. ^ a b Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Yuka INATOMI; Hiroko MURATA; Kaori SHIGETA; Naoki IIDA; Akira INADA; Jin MURATA; Miguel Angel Perez FARRERA; Munekazu IINUMA; Toshiyuki TANAKA; Shogo TAJIMA; Naoto OKU (February 2005). "A new and known cytotoxic aryltetralin-type lignans from stems of Bursera graveolens". Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 53 (2): 229–31. doi:10.1248/cpb.53.229. PMID 15684524. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
  3. ^ "Bursera graveolens". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  4. ^ "Ecuador Palo Santo Project". www.floracopeia.com. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
  5. ^ "Aprueban categorización de especies amenazadas de flora silvestre" (in Spanish). 2006-07-13. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
  6. ^ "Palo Santo reforestation Program". 2013-07-23.
  7. ^ Zapata, Ralph (2019-10-11). "Piura: autoridades decomisan 1,5 toneladas de palo santo de procedencia ilegal". El Comercio (Peru) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-10-27.
  8. ^ "Chiclayo: decomisan más de tres toneladas de palo santo trasladados de manera ilegal". Radio Programas del Perú (in Spanish). 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
  9. ^ Mexico), Alejandra Fuentes (National Autonomous University of; Salas, Esteban Martínez; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie (2019-03-01). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bursera graveolens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  10. ^ Martin, Crystal (2019-12-16). "Is Palo Santo Endangered?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  11. ^ "EcuadorianHands". EcuadorianHands. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
  12. ^ a b Gibson, Ruby (2008). My Body, My Earth: The Practice of Somatic Archaeology. iUniverse. p. 88. ISBN 9780595488230.
  13. ^ Lemdo, Margaret Ann (2011). All About Smudging. Llewellyn Worldwide. pp. No page. ISBN 9780738733142.
  14. ^ Farmer, Steven D. (2009). Earth Magic: Ancient Shamanic Wisdom for Healing Yourself, Others, and the Planet. Hay House Inc. p. 123. ISBN 9781401920050.
  15. ^ Bosker, Bianca. (March 2020). Holy Stick is also used in certain Catholic households amid rhythmic chanting of "stick." "Why Witchcraft Is on the Rise". The Atlantic magazine website Retrieved 14 February 2020.

External links