Hydrocotyle bonariensis
Hydrocotyle bonariensis.jpg
Largeleaf pennywort
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Hydrocotyle
H. bonariensis
Binomial name
Hydrocotyle bonariensis
Hydrocotyle bonariensis distMap.png
Occurrence data from GBIF

Hydrocotyle bonariensis Comm. ex Lam.
Hydrocotyle multiflora Ruiz & Pav.
Hydrocotyle petiolaris DC.
Hydrocotyle yucatanensis Millsp.[2]
Hydrocotyle caffra Meisn.[3]

Hydrocotyle bonariensis, the largeleaf pennywort,[1] once a member of the family Apiaceae, now in the family Araliaceae[4] and of the genus Hydrocotyle, is a hairless and creeping[5]perennial.[6]

Hydrocotyle bonariensis
Hydrocotyle bonariensis 4zz.jpg


This plant has numerous white[5] to creamy-yellow[6] flowers, and the flower stalks can be 30 centimetres (12 in) in height.[5]
Fruits and reproduction
The stems creep and root at the nodes; the plant spreads by rhizomes. Dollar Weed produces a dry dehiscent fruit that, at maturity, splits into two or more parts each with a single seed.[6]
This plant lives in sandy areas of somewhat extreme conditions: very dry lands that are flooded sometimes.
Community species
Co-dominate species


This species colonizes sandy ground[5] and disturbed foreshore sites, estuaries, coastline, sand dunes and ponds.[6]H. bonariensis has also displayed a tendency to prefer, and be stronger at, higher elevations.[9]

West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon
West Tropical Africa: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal
South Tropical Africa: Angola, Mozambique
Southern Africa: South Africa
Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion
Southeastern United States: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina
South-Central United States: Texas
Central America: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama
Caribbean: Cuba, Puerto Rico
Northern South America: Venezuela
Brazil: Brazil
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Peru
Southern South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay


Colombian communities
In a remote sensing project for rapid ecological evaluation, H. bonariensis was found in Colombia inhabiting several of the evaluated areas; the last two communities are considered exceptional for the diversity.[11]


  1. ^ a b Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Hydrocotyle bonariensis". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  2. ^ Tropicos. "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  3. ^ "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. record n° 27212". African Plants Database. South African National Biodiversity Institute, the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and Tela Botanica. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  4. ^ "genus Hydrocotyle". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  5. ^ a b c d Aluka. "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. [family UMBELLIFERAE]". African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. Retrieved 2008-04-25.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ a b c d "Ecology of Cumberland Plain Woodland *Hydrocotyle bonariensis". Hot Science topics. Department of Environment and Climate Change, Botanic Gardens Trust. Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  7. ^ Klein, Alecsandro Schardosim; Vanilde Citadini-Zanette; Robson Santos (September 2007). "Florística e estrutura comunitária de restinga herbácea no município de Araranguá, Santa Catarina" (PDF). Biotemas (in Spanish). 20 (3): 15–26. – 1643. Retrieved 2008-04-25.[dead link]
  8. ^ "HABITATS DE PRAIAS DO ATLÂNTICO". DESCRIÇÃO DO SITE (in Portuguese). BRAZILIAN LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PELD). Archived from the original on 2007-05-25. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
  9. ^ Knight, Tiffany M.; Thomas E. Miller (2004). "Local adaptation within a population of Hydrocotyle bonariensis" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology Research (6): 103–114. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  10. ^ "Hydrocotyle bonariensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  11. ^ Berlinc, Christian Niel; Rosario Beyhaut; Eduardo Marchisi; Nestor Pérez; Gonzalo Picasso; Carlos Prigioni; José Manuel Venzal (17–23 October 2004). "RAPID ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION FOR THE PROJECT ON THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT TREATIES" (PDF). Remote Sensing Technologies for Ecosystem Management Treaties. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs and United States Department of State. Retrieved 2008-04-25.

External links