(Redirected from Hieracium caespitosum)

Pilosella caespitosa
Yellow Hawkweed.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Pilosella
P. caespitosa
Binomial name
Pilosella caespitosa
(Dumort) P.D.Sell & C.West
Range of Hieracium caespitosum-World.svg
Worldwide distribution
  • Hieracium altaicum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
  • Hieracium caespitosum Dumort.
  • Hieracium colliniforme (Nägeli & Peter) Roffey
  • Pilosella colliniformis (Naegeli & Peter) Dostál
  • Hieracium dimorphum Norrl.
  • Hieracium dissolutum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
  • Hieracium dublanense (Rehmann) Czerep.
  • Hieracium karelicum Norrl.
  • Hieracium leptocaulon (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
  • Hieracium pratense Tausch
  • Hieracium rawaruskanum (Zahn) Czerep.
  • Pilosella altaica (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
  • Pilosella dissoluta (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
  • Pilosella dublanensis (Rehmann) Schljakov
  • Pilosella karelica Norrl.
  • Pilosella leptocaulon (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
  • Pilosella pratensis (Tausch) F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip.
  • Pilosella rawaruskana (Zahn) Schljakov
  • Pilosella sudetorum (Naegeli & Peter) Dostál

Pilosella caespitosa (synonym Hieracium caespitosum,[3] commonly known as meadow hawkweed, yellow hawkweed,[4]field hawkweed,[5]king devil,[6]yellow paintbrush, devil's paintbrush, yellow devil, yellow fox-and-cubs, and yellow king-devil) is like several other Pilosella species and has a similar appearance to many of the hawkweeds.[5]


Pilosella caespitosa is a creeping perennial,[7] with shallow, fibrous roots[8] and long rhizomes.[9]

The leaves, hairy on both sides (unlike Pilosella floribunda, which looks similar but has hair only on the underside),[5] are up to 6 inches (15 centimeters) long, spathulate, and almost exclusively basal[8] with the exception of 1 or 2 very small cauline leaves.[9] The leaves lie flat to the ground, overlap, and will smother non-vigorous turf.[7]

The stems are bristly and usually leafless, although occasionally a small leaf appears near the midpoint.[10] Stems, leaves, and bracts have dense, blackish hairs[11] and exude milky juice when broken.[8]

The 1/2 inch (1 centimeter) flower heads appear in tight clusters at the top[8] of the 1 to 3 foot (1/3 to 1 meter) stems with 5 to 40 flowers per cluster.[11]Corollas are all ligulate and bright yellow.[9] Each single flower head is an inflorescence and each petal forms its own seed, making them each a separate flower or floret.[citation needed]

The seeds are shiny, black, and plumed.[10] After maturing they are dispersed by wind, clothing, hair, feathers, and some vehicles that disturb fields or soils. P. caespitosa persists and regrows each year from rhizomes and often spreads by stolons,[12] which can be extensive, creating a dense mat of hawkweed plants (a colony)[11] that practically eliminates other vegetation.[8]

P. caespitosa prefers silt loam, well-drained soil: coarse textures, moderately low in organic matter, and moist.[12] Its presence can be an indicator of low soil fertility or slightly acidic soils.[7]

P. caespitosa has, in the past, been used for healing eyesight. Pliny the Elder had recorded information regarding how other species, specifically hawks, utilized P. caespitosa, specifically believing that they would eat it in an effort to improve eyesight.[6]

Habitat and distribution

Range throughout North America

Tolerant of drought and trampling, this species finds its habitat where the soil has been neglected. Places like roadsides,[5] neglected residential and commercial landscapes, minimally maintained public parks and open spaces, vacant lots, rubble dump sites, and abandoned grasslands (meadows).[13]

P. caespitosa is an introduced species in North America and can be found in Canada (British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec)[14] and the United States (Connecticut, Washington D.C., Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, West Virginia, and Wyoming).[4] It is considered a noxious weed in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington.[4]

P. caespitosa's native range includes a large portion of Europe, including Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and Former Yugoslavia.[15]


  1. ^ "Pilosella caespitosa subsp. caespitosa". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  2. ^ "Pilosella caespitosa subsp. colliniformis". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  3. ^ "Pilosella caespitosa (Dumort.) P.D.Sell & C.West". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  4. ^ a b c Natural Resources Conservation Service (2007). "Plants Profile for Hieracium caespitosum (meadow hawkweed)". The PLANTS Database. USDA, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  5. ^ a b c d Connecticut Botanical Society (November 13, 2005). "Field Hawkweed". Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  6. ^ a b Biodiversity at Wellesley College and in New England, Niki Zhou and Carla Holleran (2004-06-25). "King Devil". Landscape Nature Walks. Courtesy Web of Species at Wellesley College. Retrieved 2007-12-20. For a time, King Devil and other European hawkweeds were used as an herbal remedy for healing eyesight. Pliny reported, in ancient Greece, that hawks ate it to see better.
  7. ^ a b c Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University. "Yellow Hawkweed - Hieracium pratense". Weed List. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  8. ^ a b c d e Robert H. Callihan; Timothy W. Miller. "Meadow Hawkweed". Idaho's Noxious Weeds. The Idaho Association of Soil Conservation Districts. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  9. ^ a b c Don Knoke, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. "Vascular Plants: Hieracium caespitosum". WTU Image Collection: Plants of Washington. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  10. ^ a b Utah-Idaho Cooperative Weed Management Area. "Meadow Hawkweed". Noxious and Invading Weeds of the UICWMA. Archived from the original on 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  11. ^ a b c Erv Evans, Consumer Horticulturist, North Carolina State University. "Hieracium pratense = Hieracium caespitosum". Plant Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2007-12-16.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ a b Cohesive Strategy Team. "Species: Hieracium caespitosum; Meadow hawkweed complex". Cohesive Strategy Team Data. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  13. ^ Harvard Graduate School of Design. "E*view Hieracium pratense". Emergent Vegetation of the Urban Ecosystem. Archived from the original on 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  14. ^ Flora of North America. "Hieracium caespitosum in Flora of North America". Vol. 19, 20 and 21. pp. Page 278, 280, 284. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  15. ^ "Pilosella caespitosa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2007-12-15.

External links