Common wireweed
Sida acuta (Jangli-methi) in Hyderabad, AP W2 IMG 0084.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Sida
S. acuta
Binomial name
Sida acuta

Sida carpinifolia L.f.[2]

Sida acuta, the common wireweed,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is believed to have originated in Central America, but today has a pantropical distribution and is considered a weed in some areas.[4]

In northern Australia, Sida acuta is considered an invasive species, and the beetle Calligrapha pantherina has been introduced as a biological control agent in an attempt to control the plant.[5]



Undershrub, with mucilaginous juice, aerial, erect, cylindrical, branched, solid, green.


Alternate, simple, lanceolate to linear, rarely ovate to oblong, obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, coarsely and remotely serrate; petiole much shorter than the blade; stipulate, stipules free-lateral, unequally paired at the node, reticulate venation.




Small, axillary, 2-3 in a cluster; pedicels jointed at the middle, epicalyx absent, complete, bisexual, regular, actinomorphic, hypogynus, pentamerous, yellow.


Sepals: five, gamosepalous, campanulate, slightly accrescent, persistent, valvate.


Petals: five, polypetalous but slightly connate below and jointed with the staminal column, twisted.


Stamens many, monadelphous, arranged on the staminal column; staminal column is shorter than the petals, divided above into numerous filaments, anthers monothecous, reniform, basifixed, filament short, extrorse. Pollen are spherical with spikes, size is approximately 90 microns.

Pollen grains of Sida acuta


Carples: five, syncarpous, ovary superior, penta or multilocular with axile placentation, one ovule in each locule; style 1, passing through the staminal tube; stigma globular, correspond to the number of carpels.


A schizocarpic mericarp, seed 1 in each mericarp.

Classification and identification (Bentham and Hooker's system)

Class: Dicotyledonae

I) Reticulate venation.

II) Flower pentamerous.

Sub-class: Polypetalae

I) Petals free.

Series: Thalamiflorae

I) Flower hypogynus; ovary superior.

Order: Malvales

I) Stamens indefinite, monadelphous.

II) Ovary 5 carpellary, placentation axile.

Family: Malvaceae

I) Plant: mucilaginous.

II) Leaves: simple with free lateral stipule.

III) Flower: bisexual, petals: five, twisted; monadelphous stamen, anther one-celled, reniform.

Genus: Sida

I) Staminal column without teeth at apex.

II) Flowers without epicalyx.

III) Ovule 1 in each locule; seed 1 in each mericarp.

Species: S.acuta

I) Leaf base obtuse, apex acute.

Floral formula of Sida acuta



Vernacular name[6]


  1. ^ "Sida acuta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  2. ^ "Sida carpinifolia L. f." ITIS Standard Reports. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  3. ^ "Sida acuta". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  4. ^ Parsons, William Thomas; Eric George Cuthbertson (2001). Noxious weeds of Australia (2 ed.). CSIRO Publishing. pp. 508–509. ISBN 978-0-643-06514-7.
  5. ^ Julien, M.H.; McFadyen, R.E.; Cullen, Jim (2012). Biological Control of Weeds in Australia. Csiro Publishing. pp. 525–526. ISBN 978-0-643-09993-7.
  6. ^ Mukherjee, H. (1981). Plant Groups (9 ed.). New Central Book Agency Pvt Ltd. p. 1111. ISBN 9788173810947.
  7. ^ Deb, D.B. (1981). The Flora of Tripura State Vol. I. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers. p. 306.

5. S. acuta Burm.f.(Fl. ind. 147. 1768) emend. K.Schum. Fl. Bras. 12: 326. 1891. 1: 15. t. 2. 1785; Sub. sp. acuta. Cav. Diss. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3; 171. 1832; Prain. Beng. Pl. I: 259. 1903; Heinig, Enum. 90. 1907; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 90. 1915; Haines, Bot. Bih. Or. 61. 1925; Borss. in Blumea 14 (1: 187. 1966) S.carpinifolia sensu Masters in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 323. 1874. non L. f. ; Kanjilal et al. Fl. Assam 1(1) : 140. 1934; S.carpinifolia var. acuta (Burm. f) Kurz in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. II. 45(2) : 119. 1876; S. scoparia Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 114. 1790; S. lanceolata Retz. Obs. Bot. 4: 28. 1786; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3: 175. 1832; S. stauntoniana DC. Prodr. 1: 460. 1824; S.paucifolia DC. Prodr. 1: 472. 1824; S. acuta var. intermedia Hu,Fl. China(Fam.153) : 19. 1955; Deb. D.B . Fl. Tripura 1: 306. 1981.